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The Alumni Engagement Playbook Footnotes & References

Footnotes

1 Mortenson, T. G. (2012). State funding: A race to the bottom. American Council on Education.

2 Desrochers, D.M., and Hurlburt, S. (2016, January). Trends in College Spending 2003–2013: Where Does the Money Come From? Where Does It Go? What Does It Buy? American Institutes for Research.

3 Barshay, J. (2018, September 10). College Students Predicted to Fall by More than 15 Percent After the Year 2025. The Hechinger Report.

4 Redden, E. (2019, November 18). Number of Enrolled International Students Drops. Inside Higher Education.

5 Marken, S. (2019, December 12). Half in U.S. Now Consider College Education Very Important. Gallup.

6 Nadworthy, E., and Larkin, Max. (2019, December 16). Fewer Students Are Going to College. Here’s Why That Matters. National Public Radio.

7 Farmer (2019)

8  Seltzer, R. (2017). Deficits at Small Colleges and Large Universities. Inside Higher Education.

9 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2019). The Condition of Education 2019 (NCES 2019-144), Postsecondary Institution Revenues Reference Tables 333.10 Revenues of public degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by source of revenue and level of institution: Selected years, 2007-08 through 2016-17 and 333.40 Total revenue of private nonprofit degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by source of funds and level of institution: Selected years, 1999-2000 through 2016-17. 

10  Seltzer, R. (2017)

11  Bryant, J. (2016, February 15). How Does College Student Satisfaction Predict Alumni Giving? Ruffalo Noel Levitz.

12  Hazelrigg, N. (2019, June 20). Larger Donations, Fewer Donors. Inside Higher Education.

13 Seltzer, R. (2016, June 30). The Elusive Young Donor. Inside Higher Education.

14  Marcus, J. (2017, September 19). In-Demand Graduate Programs Become a Cash Cow for Colleges in Financial Distress. The Hechinger Report.

15  Baum, S. & Steele, P. (2017). Who Goes to Graduate School and Who Succeeds? Urban Institute.

16  U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Digest of Education Statistics. Master’s degrees conferred by postsecondary institutions, by field of study: Selected years, 1970-71 through 2014-15.

17 Thomas, D., and Brown, J. S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change. Lexington, Ky: CreateSpace?. 

18  https://qz.com/work/1636066/millennial-managers-say-changing-jobs-has-aided-their-success/

19 Tugend, A. (2019)

20 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 

21 Dellarocas, C. (2018, August 1). Higher Education in a World Where Students Never Graduate. Inside Higher Education.

22  Toyn, G.W. (2017). The Alumni Relations Benchmarking Study. Access Development.

23  Dellarocas (2018)

24  Toyn (2017)

25  Toyn (2017)

26  Toyn, G.W. (2016, August 11). The Three Highest Rated (Not Lame) Alumni Benefits. Access Development.

27  Toyn (2017)

28  Dillon, J. L. (2017). Factors and Characteristics of Alumni Role Identity: Implications for Practice in Higher Education Fundraising and Alumni Relations. University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

29  Toyn (2017)

30  Widenhorn, M., and Knudsen, M. (2019). 2019 Alumni Communications Survey Analysis. iModules.

31  Toyn (2017)

32  Toyn (2017)

33  Drezner, N. D. (2018). Alumni Engagement in Higher Education: A Matter of Marketing and Leveraging Social Identities. In Papadimitrou A. (Ed.) Competition in Higher Education Branding and Marketing: National and Global Perspectives, pp. 181-195. Palgrave Macmillan.

34  Dillon (2017)

35  Dillon (2017)

36  Dillon (2017)

37  Martin, J.C. (1993). Characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a research I, public university. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

38  Dietz, R., and Keller, B. (2016). Donor Loyalty Study: A Deep Dive into Donor Behaviors and Attitudes. Abila.

39  Widenhorn and Knudsen (2019)

40  Dietz and Keller (2016)

41  Wastyn, (2009). Why alumni don’t give: A qualitative study of what motivates non-donors to higher education. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 9, 96–108.

42  Martin (1993)

43  Lundqvist, A., Liljander, V., and Gummerus, J. (2013). The impact of storytelling on the consumer brand experience: The case of a firm-originated story. Journal of Brand Management, 20, pp. 283–297.

44 Toyn (2017)

45 Toyn (2017)

46 Mobile Giving Statistics for Nonprofits. Nonprofits Source.

47 Pemberton, C. (2016). Tap into the Marketing Power of SMS. Gartner.

48 Global Mobile Messaging Consumer Report (2016). Twilio.

49 Toyn (2017)

50 Dietz, R., and Keller, B. (2016). Donor Loyalty Study: A Deep Dive into Donor Behaviors and Attitudes. Abila.

51 Mobile Giving Statistics for Nonprofits. Nonprofits Source.

52 Dillon (2017)

53 Reddick, C. G., & Pnomariov, B. (2013). The effect of individuals’ organization affiliation on internet donations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(6), 1197-1223.

54 Hanover Research (2018). Alumni Engagement Strategies to Promote Fundraising. Arlington, VA.

55 Paterson, J. (2019, August 20). To Create a Culture of Giving, Colleges Go After Small Donations. Education Dive.

56 Toyn (2017)

57 Widenhorn and Knudsen (2019)

58 Dietz and Keller (2016)

59 Dillon (2017)

60 Gaier, S. (2005). Alumni Satisfaction with their undergraduate academic experience and the impact on alumni giving and participation. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 5 (4), 279–288.

61 Dietz and Keller (2016)

62 Ropp, C. (2014). The Relationship Between Student Academic Engagement and Alumni Giving at a Public State Flagship University. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Bryant, 2016; Monks, 2003)

63 Schlesinger, W. (2017). Sticking with your university: The importance of satisfaction, trust, image, and shared values. Studies in Higher Education, 42 (12), 2178-2194.

64 Weerts, D., Ronca, J. (2007). Profiles of supportive alumni: Donors, volunteers, and those who “do it all.” International Journal of Educational Advancement, 7, 20–34.

65 Young, J. (2019, November 18). What Kinds of College Graduates Value Their Education the Most? EdSurge.

66 Lohnes, B., and Nekvasil, N. (2016, September). Alumni Attachment, Giving Linked to Undergraduate Experience. Gallup.

67 Wilkins, S., Butt, M.M., Kratochvil, D., & Balakrishnan, M.S. (2015, April 20.). The effects of social identification and organizational identification on student commitment, achievement, and satisfaction in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 41 (12), 2232-2252.

68 Lohnes and Nekvasil (2016)

69 Field, K. (2019, December 13). A Cash-Strapped University Bet on Student Success — and Grew. Chronicle of Higher Education.

70 Vianden, J., & Barlow, P. J. (2015). Strengthen the bond: Relationships between academic advising, quality, and undergraduate student loyalty. NACADA Journal, 32 (2), 15-27.

71 Ropp (2014)

72 Lohnes and Nekvasil (2016)

73 Gaier, S. (2005). Alumni Satisfaction with their undergraduate academic experience and the impact on alumni giving and participation. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 5 (4), 279–288.

74 Elliott, K.M., and Healey, M.A. (2001). Key factors influencing student satisfaction related to recruitment and retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10 (4), 1-11.

75 Ropp (2014)

76 Rau, N. E., & Erwin, T. D. (2015). Using student engagement to predict alumni donors: An analytical model. Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, 5(2), 101-111.

77 Ropp (2014)

78 Lohnes and Nekvasil (2016)

79 Dugan, K., Mullin, C. H., & Siegfried, J. J. (2002). Undergraduate financial aid and subsequent giving behavior. Williams Project on Economics of Higher Education Discussion Papers. Williams College, Williamstown, MA.

80 Bryant, J., Bodfish, S., & Stever, D. (2015). The correlation between college student satisfaction and alumni giving. Cedar Rapids: Ruffalo Noel Levitz.

81 Lohnes and Nekvasil (2016)

82 Rau and Erwin (2015) Steeper, 2009; Lawley 2008; Lofton, 2005; Connor, 2005; Gaier, 2004

83 Ropp (2014)

84 Ropp (2014)

85 Patouillet, L. D. (2000). Alumni association members: Attitudes towards university life and giving at a public AAU institution. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

86 Lohnes and Nekvasil (2016)

87 Young, J. (2019, November 21). What Kinds of College Graduates Value Their Education the Most? EdSurge.

88 Young (2019)

89 Marken, S., & Matson, T. (2019, June 3). Inclusive Environments Product Attached Alumni. Gallup.

90 Elliott and Healey (2001)

91 Rau and Erwin (2015)

92 Marken, S., and Matson, T. (2019, June 3). Inclusive Environments Product Attached Alumni. Gallup.

93 Marken and Matson (2019)

94 Widenhorn, M. (2019). Online Giving Trends and Opportunities. iModules.

95 Dietz and Keller (2016)

96 Widenhorn, M. (2019)

97 Dietz and Keller (2016)

References

Barshay, J. (2018, September 10). College Students Predicted to Fall by More than 15 Percent After the Year 2025. The Hechinger Report.

Baum, S. and Steele, P. (2017). Who Goes to Graduate School and Who Succeeds? Urban Institute.

Bryant, J. (2016, February 15). How Does College Student Satisfaction Predict Alumni Giving? Ruffalo Noel Levitz.

Bryant, J., Bodfish, S., & Stever, D. (2015). The Correlation Between College Student Satisfaction and Alumni Giving. Cedar Rapids: Ruffalo Noel Levitz. 

Camera, L. (2019, March 22). The Higher Education Apocalypse. U.S. News & World Report.

Cheng, M. (2019, June 6). The Scourge of Millennial Job-Hopping Is a Myth. Quartz.

Connor, D. K. (2005). Factors That Affect Alumni Giving at a Southeastern Comprehensive University. Clemson University, Clemson, SC.

Dellarocas, C. (2018, August 1). Higher Education in a World Where Students Never Graduate. Inside Higher Education.

Dennis, C., Papagiannidis, S., Alamanos, E., & Bourlakis, M. (2016, February 15). The Role of Brand Attachment Strength in Higher Education. Journal of Business Research. 

Desrochers, D. M., and Hurlburt, S. (2016, January). Trends in College Spending 2003-2013: Where Does the Money Come From? Where Does It Go? What Does It Buy? American Institutes for Research.

Dietz, R., and Keller, B. (2016). Donor Loyalty Study: A Deep Dive into Donor Behaviors and Attitudes. Abila.

Dillon, J. L. (2017). Factors and Characteristics of Alumni Role Identity: Implications for Practice in Higher Education Fundraising and Alumni Relations. University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Drezner, N. D. (2018). Alumni Engagement in Higher Education: A Matter of Marketing and Leveraging Social Identities. In Papadimitrou A. (Ed.) Competition in Higher Education Branding and Marketing: National and Global Perspectives, pp. 181-195. Palgrave Macmillan.

Dugan, K., Mullin, C. H., & Siegfried, J. J. (2002). Undergraduate Financial Aid and Subsequent Giving Behavior. Williams Project on Economics of Higher Education Discussion Papers. Williams College, Williamstown, MA.

Education Dive (2019, November 1). A Look at Trends in College and University Consolidation Since 2016.

Elliott, K. M., and Healey, M. A. (2001). Key Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction Related to Recruitment and Retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(4), 1-11.

Farmer, L. (2019, October 2). ‘This is the Bust’: Colleges Tackle the Challenge of Regional Consolidation. Education Dive.

Gaier, S. (2005). Alumni Satisfaction with Their Undergraduate Academic Experience and the Impact on Alumni Giving and Participation. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 5(4), 279-288.

Hanover Research (2018). Alumni Engagement Strategies to Promote Fundraising. Arlington, VA.

Hazelrigg, N. (2019, June 20). Larger Donations, Fewer Donors. Inside Higher Education.

Kim, J. (2018, August 8). Do Elite Universities’ New Credentials Threaten Regional Colleges? Inside Higher Education.

Lawley, C. D. (2008). Factors That Affect Alumni loyalty at a Public University. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Lederman, D. (2016, January). In Giving to Colleges, the One Percenters Gain. Inside Higher Education.

Lofton, W. J. (2005). Commonalities Among Experiences of Supportive Alumni of the

Lohnes, B., and Nekvasil, N. (2016, September). Alumni Attachment: Giving Linked to Undergraduate Experience. Gallup.

Lundqvist, A., Liljander, V., & Gummerus, J. (2013). The Impact of Storytelling on the Consumer Brand Experience: The Case of a Firm-Originated Story. Journal of Brand Management, 20, 283-297.

Marcus, J. (2017, September 19). In-Demand Graduate Programs Become a Cash Cow for Colleges in Financial Distress. The Hechinger Report.

Marken, S. (2019, December 12). Half in U.S. Now Consider College Education Very Important. Gallup.

Marken, S., and Matson, T. (2019, June 3). Inclusive Environments Product Attached Alumni. Gallup.

Martin, J. C. (1993). Characteristics of Alumni Donors and Non-donors at a Research I, Public University. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Mitchell, M., Leachman, M., & Masterson, K. (2019, August 15). Funding Down, Tuition Up: State Cuts to Higher Education Threaten Quality and Affordability at Public Colleges. Center on Budget Policy and Priorities. 

Monks, J. (2003). Patterns of Giving to One’s Alma Mater Among Young Graduates from Selective Institutions. Economics of Education Review, 22(2), 121-130.

Mortenson, T. G. (2012). State Funding: A Race to the Bottom. American Council on Education.

Nadworthy, E., and Larkin, M. (2019, December 16). Fewer Students Are Going to College. Here’s Why That Matters. National Public Radio.

Newberry, C. and Dawley, S. (2019, December 10). Social Media Trends 2020: Hootsuite’s Annual Report on the Latest Global Trends in Social Media. Hootsuite.

Paterson, J. (2019, August 20). To Create a Culture of Giving, Colleges Go After Small Donations. Education Dive.

Patouillet, L. D. (2000). Alumni Association Members: Attitudes Towards University Life and Giving at a Public AAU institution. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Rau, N. E., and Erwin, T. D. (2015). Using Student Engagement to Predict Alumni Donors: An Analytical Model. Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, 5(2), 101-111.

Redden, E. (2019, November 18). Number of Enrolled International Students Drops. Inside Higher Education.

Reddick, C. G., and Pnomariov, B. (2013). The Effect of Individuals’ Organization Affiliation on Internet Donations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(6), 1197-1223.

Ropp, C. (2014). The Relationship Between Student Academic Engagement and Alumni Giving at a Public State Flagship University. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

Ruffalo Noel Levitz (2016). 2015-16 National Student Satisfaction and Priorities Report. Cedar Rapids: Ruffalo Noel Levitz.

Schlesinger, W. (2017). Sticking with Your University: The Importance of Satisfaction, Trust, Image, and Shared Values. Studies in Higher Education, 42(12).

Seltzer, R. (2017, June 13). Deficits at Small Colleges and Large Universities. Inside Higher Education.

Seltzer, R. (2016, June 30). The Elusive Young Donor. Inside Higher Education.

Steeper, D. W. (2009). The Effects of Selected Undergraduate Student Involvement and Alumni Characteristics on Alumni Giving Behavior. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Thomas, D., and Brown, J. S. (2011). A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a

Toyn, G.W. (2017). The Alumni Relations Benchmarking Study. Access Development.

Toyn, G. W. (2016, August 11). The Three Highest Rated (Not Lame) Alumni Benefits. Access Development.

Tugend, A. (2019, October 10). 60 Years of Higher Ed—Really? The New York Times.

U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Digest of Education Statistics. Master’s degrees conferred by postsecondary institutions, by field of study: Selected years, 1970-71 through 2014-15.

University of Southern Mississippi. University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.  

Vianden, J., and Barlow, P. J. (2015). Strengthen the bond: Relationships between academic advising, quality, and undergraduate student loyalty. NACADA Journal, 32(2), 15-27. 

Wastyn, M. (2009). Why alumni don’t give: A qualitative study of what motivates non-donors to higher education. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 9, 96-108.

Weerts, D., Ronca, J. (2007). Profiles of supportive alumni: Donors, volunteers, and those who “do it all.” International Journal of Educational Advancement, 7, 20-34.

Wilkins, S., Butt, M. M., Kratochvil, D., & Balakrishnan, M. S. (2015, April 20). The effects of social identification and organizational identification on student commitment, achievement, and satisfaction in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 41(12), 2232-2252.

Wong, A. (2019, June 18). The Surreal End of an American College. The Atlantic.

World of Constant Change. Lexington, KY: CreateSpace.

Young, J. (2019, November 21). What Kinds of College Graduates Value Their Education the Most? EdSurge.